The FBI defines an Active Shooter as one or more individuals actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a populated area. Implicit in this definition is the shooter’s use of firearms. The consistency of these incidents as well as the continued rise in frequency of them supports the paramount need for training and exercises for not just law enforcement and other first responders, but also for citizens themselves.
The information on these pages is summarized from a variety of reputable sources, including FBI and law enforcement databases.
David N. Anderson, 47, and Francine Graham, 50, were heavily armed and traveling in a white van when they first killed a police officer in a cemetery, and then opened fire at a kosher market, “fueled both by anti-Semitism and anti-law enforcement beliefs,” according to New Jersey authorities. The pair, linked to the antisemitic ideology of the Black Hebrew Israelites extremist group, were killed after a lenghty gun battle with police at the market.
Ahmed Mohammed al-Shamrani, A Saudi Arabian military pilot training in the United States, opened fire just before 7 a.m. in an air station classroom. He was soon shot and killed by responding Florida sheriff’s deputies.
Seth A. Ator, 36, fired at police officers who stopped him for a traffic violation, and then went on a driving rampage in the Odessa-Midland region, where he also shot a postal worker and stole her vehicle. He was shot dead by law enforcement responding to the rampage. Ator had been fired from a job just prior to the attack (though per the FBI he had shown up to that job "already enraged"). He had a criminal record and "a long history of mental problems and making racist comments," according to a family friend who spoke to the media
Connor Betts, 24, died during the attack, following a swift police response. He wore tactical gear including body armor and hearing protection, and had a high-capacity magazine capable of holding 100 rounds. Betts had a history of threatening behavior dating back to high school. Nine people lost their lives and 27 people were injured
Patrick Crusius, 21, who was apprehended by police, posted a so-called manifesto online shortly before the attack espousing ideas of violent white nationalism and hatred of immigrants. 20 people lost their lives and over 2 dozen people were injured.
Santino William LeGan, 19, fired indiscriminately into the crowd near a concert stage at the festival. He used an AK-47-style rifle, purchased legally in Nevada three weeks earlier. After apparently pausing to reload, he fired additional multiple rounds before police responding at the scene shot him to death. A witness described overhearing someone shout at LeGan, "Why are you doing this?" LeGan, who was dressed in camouflage, replied: “Because I'm really angry." The murdered victims included a 13-year-old girl, a man in his 20s, and six-year-old Stephen Romero.
DeWayne Craddock, 40, a municipal city worker wielding handguns, a suppressor and high-capacity magazines, killed en masse inside a Virginia Beach muncipal building late in the day on a Friday, before dying in a prolonged gun battle with police. Craddock reportedly had submitted his resignation from his job that morning. He was a veteran of the Virginia Army National Guard, and "had a shaved head, bodybuilder’s physique and cameras in the windows of his house on a peaceful cul-de-sac," according to the Washington Post.
Gary Martin, 45, went on a rampage inside the warehouse in response to being fired from his job and died soon thereafter in a shootout with police. Among his victims were five dead coworkers and five injured police officers. Martin had a felony record and lengthy history of domestic violence; he was able to obtain a gun despite having had his Illinois firearms ownership identification card revoked.
Jordan Witmer, 21, shot three people at a Ramada Hotel bar near Penn State University, including a former girlfriend he was there with. He then fled the bar, crashed his car about a mile away, and stormed into a random house, fatally shooting an elderly resident and then himself. Witmer, who had a legal carry permit for his handgun, had just finished a three-year stint in the US Army; ten days prior to the attack he had been convicted on drunk driving-related charges in Kentucky, where he'd been stationed.
Zephen A. Xaver, 21, fatally shot five women inside a bank and then called the police to confess. He was armed with a handgun and wore a bulletproof vest. He reportedly ordered the women to lie down on the floor and shot them execution-style. After a standoff with police, he surrendered and was taken into custody. A week prior, Xaver had quit a job as a prison guard trainee, and authorities said they believed the shooting was "a random act" and that robbery did not appear to be a motive. An ex-girlfriend in Indiana told local media she'd been “scared for years” by Xaver’s talk of violence and death, but that her warnings to others (who she did not identify) were not taken seriously. She said she’d first met Xaver in a psychiatric hospital in 2013.
Juan Lopez, 32, reportedly confronted his former fiancé, ER doctor Tamara O'Neal, before shooting her and opening fire on others at the hospital, including a responding police officer, Samuel Jimenez, and a pharmacy employee, Dayna Less. Lopez was fatally shot by a responding SWAT officer.
Ian David Long, 28 Wearing dark clothing and a dark baseball cap, he used smoke bombs to start the carnage. He then went on to kill 12 people and injuring 22. “I remember looking back at one point to make sure he wasn’t behind me,” said Sarah DeSon, a 19-year-old college student
Robert D. Bowers, 46 chanted anti-semetic slurs. He went into the synagogue on the Saturday morning of October 27, 2018, armed with an AR-15. He said to a Swat team officer “wanted all Jews to die,” Eleven people were killed and twenty two injured.
On September 20, 2018, 26-year old Snochia Moseley approached her place of employment in Perryman, MD, and opened fire. She shot and killed three and injured three before fatally injuring herself. This was the second active shooting incident in Maryland so far in 2018.
Javier Casarez, 54, went on a shooting spree on September 12, 2018. He murdered his wife and two former coworkers at the trucking company, including pursuing on man who tried to flee. He then drove to a private residence, where he murdered two more people. He carjacked a woman who was driving with her child; he let them go uninjured but took the car. He fatally shot himself when he was approached by law enforcement.
Omar Enrique Santa Perez, 29, walked into the ground-floor lobby of a building in downtown Cincinnati shortly after 9am on September 6, 2018. He was armed with a 9mm pistol loaded with both standard and hollow-point ammunition. He opened fire, killing three and injuring two more. Police responded by 9:10am. Perez was fatally wounded in a shootout with law enforcement officers on the scene.
At 3pm on June 28, 2018, Jarrod W. Ramos, 38, used a shotgun to shoot through the glass doors of the newroom at the Capital Gazette building in Annapolis, MD. He shot and killed five people and injured two more before police found him hiding under a desk. He was arrested and apprehended. This incident is the third deadliest mass shooting in 2018 so far.
Dimitrios Pagourtzis, a 17-year-old student, entered Santa Fe High School armed with a shotgun and .38 revolver that were both owned by his father. Before he was apprehended by police, Pagourtzis killed ten people—eight students and two teachers—and injured 13 more. The incident lasted 25 minutes form start to finish, and is the second-deadliest school shooting in US history.
On April 22, 2018, a mass shooting occurred at an American Waffle House restaurant in the Antioch neighborhood of Nashville, Tennessee. Four victims were killed and two suffered gunshot wounds. Two others were injured by broken glass. The shooter, armed with a semi-automatic rifle, was rushed by an unarmed customer who took the weapon away, interrupting the shooting spree. The suspect, Travis Jeffrey Reinking, was captured on April 23, ending a 34-hour manhunt.
On October 1, 2017, 64-year-old Stephen Paddock opened fire on 22,000 people at a country music festival from his hotel suite on the 32nd floor of the Mandalay Bay hotel on the Las Vegas strip. The attack, which left 58 people dead and more than 500 injured, marked the deadliest mass shooting in modern U.S. history.
Five people were killed and eight others were injured when 26-year-old Esteban Santiago opened fire at Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport in Florida on January 6, 2017. He flew from Alaska to Florida with a gun in a checked bag, which he used to carry out the massacre in the baggage claim area of Terminal 2.